The appropriate utilization of diamond blades is vital to providing cost effective solutions for that construction industry. The Concrete Sawing and Drilling Association, which is committed to the advancement and professionalism of concrete cutting operators, offers operators the tools and skills needed to understand and use diamond blades for optimal performance. CSDA accomplishes this goal through providing introductory and advanced training programs for operators with hands-on lessons in flat sawing, wall sawing, core drilling, wire sawing and hand sawing. They also offer some safety and training videos and also a safety handbook in support with their effort to coach sawing and drilling operators. This information will discuss the use of diamond tools, primarily saw blades, and supply recommendations for their cost-effective use.
Diamond is well known as being the hardest substance seen to man. One could assume that an operator of cut to length machine could utilize the hardness characteristics of diamond to maximum advantage, i.e. the harder the better. In practice, this is not always true. If the operator is cutting or drilling concrete, stone, masonry or asphalt, the diamonds must wear as a way to increase the performance of your cutting tool. This information will examine the role diamond plays in cutting tools and how an operator can use analytical solutions to maximize the application of the diamond cutting tools thereby increasing productivity and maximizing the life of your tool.
Diamond crystals might be synthetically grown in a multitude of qualities, styles and sizes. Synthetic diamond has replaced natural diamond in practically all construction applications because of this capability to tailor-make your diamond for your specific application. Diamond is grown with smooth crystal faces in the cubo-octahedral shape along with the color is normally from light yellow to medium yellow-green. Diamond is likewise grown into a specific toughness, which generally increases since the crystal size decreases. The dimensions of the diamond crystals, known as mesh size, determines the quantity of diamond cutting points exposed on top of your saw blade. On the whole, larger mesh size diamond is utilized for cutting softer materials while smaller mesh size diamond is commonly used for cutting harder materials. However, there are numerous interrelated factors to consider and those general guidelines might not exactly always apply.
The number of crystals per volume, or diamond concentration, also affects the cutting performance from the diamond tool. Diamond concentration, typically called CON, is really a measure of the volume of diamond within a segment dependant on volume. A common reference point is 100 CON, which equals 72 carats per cubic inch. Diamond concentration for construction tools is generally in the range of 15-50 CON. A 32 CON means the tool has 23 carats per cubic inch, or about 4 carats per segment. Enhancing the diamond concentration by providing more cutting points can certainly make the bond act harder while also increasing diamond tool life. Optimum performance is possible if the diamond tool manufacturer utilizes her or his experience and analytical capabilities to balance diamond concentration and other factors to accomplish optimum performance for the cutting operator.
Diamond Shape & Size
Diamond shapes may differ from tough blocky cubo-octahedral crystals (Figure 1) to more friable crystals with less well-defined geometry (Figure 2). Diamond crystals with blocky shapes and sharp edges are generally more appropriate for stone and construction applications. The blocky shape provides greater effectiveness against fracturing, and thus supplies the maximum number of cutting points and minimum surface contact. It has a direct impact inside a lower horsepower requirement for the transformer core cutting machine and to maximize the life for that tool. Lower grade diamond is less costly and customarily has more irregularly shaped and angular crystals and is also more suitable for less severe applications.
Synthetic diamond might be grown in a number of mesh sizes to fit the specified application. Mesh sizes are typically in the range of 20 to 50 Usa Mesh (840 to 297 microns) in construction applications. How big the diamond crystals, as well as the concentration, determines the quantity of diamond that will be exposed above the cutting top of the segments around the blade. The exposure, or height, of diamond protrusion (Figure 3) influences the depth of cut for each crystal, and subsequently, the potential material removal rate. Larger diamond crystals and greater diamond protrusion can lead to a potentially faster material removal rate if you find enough horsepower available. As a general rule, when cutting softer materials, larger diamond crystals are used, and whenever cutting harder materials, smaller crystals are being used.
The diamond mesh size inside a cutting tool also directly relates to the volume of crystals per carat and also the free cutting ability of the diamond tool. The smaller the mesh size, the larger the diamond crystals, while larger mesh size means smaller diamond. A 30/40 Mesh blocky diamond has about 660 crystals per carat, while a 40/50 Mesh diamond will have 1,700 crystals per carat.
Specifying the proper mesh size is the task of the diamond tool manufacturer. Producing the proper amount of cutting points can maximize the lifetime of the tool and reduce the device power requirements. As an example, a diamond tool manufacturer might want to utilize a finer mesh size to enhance the number of cutting crystals over a low concentration tool which improves tool life and power requirements.
Diamond Impact Strength
All diamond is not the identical, and this is also true for the strength of diamonds found in construction applications. The capability of a diamond to withstand a direct impact load is generally called diamond impact strength. Other diamond-related factors, like crystal shape, size, inclusions along with the distribution of these crystal properties, be involved from the impact strength as well.
Impact strength may be measured and is commonly referred to as Toughness Index (TI). Furthermore, crystals will also be exposed to extremely high temperatures during manufacturing and sometimes in the cutting process. Thermal Toughness Index (TTI) is the way of measuring the power of a diamond crystal to resist thermal cycling. Subjecting the diamond crystals to high temperature, allowing them to come back to room temperature, after which measuring the change in toughness makes this measurement useful to a diamond tool manufacturer.
The maker must select the right diamond based on previous experience or input in the operator in the field. This decision is located, in part, on the tool’s design, bond properties, material being cut and Transformer core cutting machine. These factors has to be balanced by picking diamond grade and concentration that will supply the operator with optimum performance at a suitable cost.
Generally, an increased impact strength is essential for more demanding, harder-to-cut materials. However, always using higher impact strength diamond that is more pricey will not always benefit the operator. It might not improve, and may even degrade tool performance.
A diamond saw blade consists of a circular steel disk with segments containing the diamond that are connected to the outer perimeter of the blade (Figure 4). The diamonds are held in place with the segment, which is actually a specially formulated combination of metal bond powders and diamond, that have been pressed and heated within a sintering press through the manufacturer. The diamond and bond are tailor-intended to the precise cutting application. The exposed diamonds at first glance of your segment carry out the cutting. A diamond blade cuts inside a manner much like how sand paper cuts wood. Since the blade cuts, bond tails are formed dexqpky76 trail behind each diamond (Figure 5). This bond tail provides mechanical support for that diamond crystal. Since the blade rotates throughout the material, the diamonds chip away with the material being cut (Figure 6).
The best lifetime of a diamond starts as a whole crystal that becomes exposed throughout the segment bond matrix. Because the blade begins to cut, a small wear-flat develops and a bond tail develops behind the diamond. Eventually, small microfractures develop, however the diamond continues to be cutting well. Then a diamond starts to macrofracture, and in the end crushes (Figure 7). Here is the last stage of any diamond before it experiences a popout, the location where the diamond quite literally pops out from the bond. The blade continues to act as its cutting action is bought out with the next layer of diamonds which can be interspersed through the segment.
The metal bond matrix, which is often made of iron, cobalt, nickel, bronze or another metals in various combinations, was created to wear away after many revolutions in the blade. Its wear rate is designed to ensure that it will wear at a rate that can provide maximum retention in the diamond crystals and protrusion from your matrix so that they can cut.
The diamond and bond interact with each other which is up to the manufacturer to deliver the best combination based on input from your cutting contractor given specific cutting requirements. Critical factors both for sides to address are the bond system, material to become cut and machine parameters. The mixture of diamond and bond accomplishes numerous critical functions.